Autores: Sandra M. Ramírez‐Barrera, Julián A. Velasco*, Tania M. Orozco‐Téllez, Alma M. Vázquez‐López , Blanca E. Hernández‐Baños
* Departamento de Ciencias Atmosféricas | Cambio Climático y Radiación Solar
he effects of geographic and environmental variables on patterns of genetic and phenotypic differentiation have been thoroughly studied. Ecological speciation involves reproductive isolation due to divergent natural selection that can result in a positive correlation between genetic divergence and adaptive phenotypic divergence (isolation by adaptation, IBA). If the phenotypic target of selection is unknown or not easily measured, environmental variation can be used as a proxy, expecting positive correlation between genetic and environmental distances, independent of geographic distances (isolation by environment, IBE). The null model is that the amount of gene flow between populations decreases as the geographic distance between them increases, and genetic divergence is due simply to the neutral effects of genetic drift (isolation by distance, IBD). However, since phenotypic differentiation in natural populations may be autocorrelated with geographic distance, it is often difficult to distinguish IBA from the neutral expectation of IBD. In this work, we test hypotheses of IBA, IBE, and IBD in the Red‐crowned Ant tanager (Habia rubica).