The Endocrine Disruptor Compound Bisphenol-A (BPA) Regulates the Intra-Tumoral Immune Microenvironment and Increases Lung Metastasis in an Experimental Model of Breast Cancer

Karen Nava Castro, Margarita Isabel Palacios Arreola

International Journal of Molecular Sciences |

Autores: Margarita Isabel Palacios-Arreola, Norma Angelica Moreno-Mendoza, Karen Elizabeth Nava-Castro*, Mariana Segovia-Mendoza, Armando Perez-Torres, Claudia Angelica Garay-Canales and Jorge Morales-Montor

* Ciencias Ambientales | Biología y Química Atmosféricas



reast cancer (BC) metastasis represents the main physiopathology leading to poor prognosis and death. Bisphenol A (BPA) is a pollutant, classified as an endocrine-disrupting chemical compound with estrogenic properties, their exposure in the early stages of neonatal life leads to an increase in the size and weight of breast tumors and induces cellular changes in the tumoral immune microenvironment where cytokines play a key role. Thus, we used female BALB/c mice exposed neonatally to a single dose of BPA. Once mice reached sexual maturity, a mammary tumor was induced, injecting 4T1 cells in situ. After 25 days of injection, we evaluated endocrine alterations, cytokine expression, tissue alterations denoted by macro or micro-metastasis in the lung, and cell infiltration induced by metastasis. We found that BPA neonatal treatment did not show significant endocrine alterations. Noteworthy, BPA led to an augmented rate of metastasis to the lung associated with higher intratumoral expression of IL-1β, IL-6, IFN-γ, TNF-α, and VEGF. Our data suggest that cytokines are key players in the induction of BC metastasis and that BPA (an environmental pollutant) should be considered as a risk factor in the clinical history of patients as a possible inductor of BC metastasis